Europe

Europe is a part of world which geologically and geographically forms the western part of Eurasia. In the North it is surrounded by Arctic Ocean, but in the South – by Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. It is believed that Ural Mountains, Ural River, the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus mountains form an Eastern boundary of Europe. Several isles, peninsulas and archipelagos are also included in Europe, but the biggest one is Great Britain. The total length of shoreline is 38 000 kilometers. It is so long, because it is made of several bays, fjords and inland seas. The total area of Europe is almost 10,2 square kilometers, but population exceeds 731 million of people.

The majority of Europe is made of lowlands – approximately 3/5 of total area are lower than 200 meters above sea level, but only 1/15 of Europe is higher than 1 kilometer. The highest mountain systems cross Europe in its Southern part, for example, Pyrenees, Alps, Apennines, Carpathians and Balkan mountains. Scandinavian mountains are the only mountain range which is noticeable in North. Although Europe has a lot of rivers, it has only few big lakes. The longest river of Europe is Volga, but the biggest lake of the Europe is Lake Ladoga. Wide territories, especially in North, are covered with glaciers. About 1/3 of Europe territory is arable, where cereals, in particular wheat and barley, are grown. Another 1/3 of Europe is covered with forests.

Europe is the leading region of world by its modern economy which bases on commercial agriculture and industry. It is also one of the biggest industrial regions in the world where the average annual per capita income forms around 1/10 of world’s population. The majority of Europeans speaks in Romance, Germanic and Slavic languages. Most of Europeans are Christians.

Europe has long history of cultural and economical achievements which constantly lasts already several thousands of years. Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome are considered to be the origin of modern Europe. There was a decay period – Middle Ages – after collapse of Roman Empire, but in 12th – 13th century Renaissance contributed new revival of Europe. In 15th century Portugal launched the period of geographical discoveries, but very soon such countries as Spain, France, Netherlands and United Kingdom joined Portugal. As a result in 15th – 18th century civilization of Europe became the first global civilization which exposed or affected rest of world cultures.